Coastal areas throughout the world are under stress. There are five anthropogenic factors causing marine environmental degradation and depletion of coastal
resources: population growth, pollution, habitat degradation, multiple resource use conflicts, and over-exploitation of resources (Norse, 1993).
Coastal zones around the world suffer from common problems with various degrees of severity:
3. Reduction of biodiversity
4. Conflicts among governmental and non-governmental stake-holders
5. Natural hazards