There are 20 Iranian Islands in the Persian Gulf, the smallest of which is Farsi Island with an area of 0.25 sq. km and its largest one is Qeshm Island with an area of 1491 sq. km. Out of the 20 islands, 11 of them are populated while the remaining 9 are either deserted or used as a military base with few personnel. The Iranian island in the Persian Gulf have different functions.For example Kharg can be named for oil export, Kish for tourism and recreation, Qeshm for economical and industrial, and ABU-Musa, and Hormoz for political and military functions.The islands that have permanent inhabitants, have mostly economical functions, but 9 islands which have no inhabitants have mainly a political and military functions, and affect the ICZM procedure from this point of view. Only ABU – Musa island is considered to be one of the important islands of the Persian Gulf which plays a strategic role for Iran. Having this island enables Iran to extend its legal authorities to central Persian Gulf and reinforces its dominance over the region – Hormoz and Hengam in Hormoz strait play an important role in maintaining peace in this strait as well. Larak Island holds the smallest number of residents while Qeshm is regarded as the most populous Island. Most people are engaged in farming, fishing, limited horticulture, trading and tourism activities.
Qeshm is regarded as the largest Iranian Island in the Persian Gulf which is situated in the opening inlet of this sea on the east. It is surrounded by Bandare Abbas and a part of Bandare Lenge in the north, Hormoz Island in its northeast, Larak Island in the east, Hengam Island in the south and by Great and Small Tunb Islands in its south west.
Khark Island is situated in the N.E of the Persian Gulf at the folding zone of southern Zagros range in the extension of anticlines. In general, some of the islands such as Khark, Kharku, and Kish are the result of the Persian Gulf reef belts.
Hormoz Island is in fact a salt dome in which volcanic formations prevail. This island is the result of a given formation known as Hormoz which consists of rock salt and lime stones along with sedimentary and igneous masses. They form a set of rocks which are quite dissimilar from the layers surrounding the salt domes. The lands are of two types' hills and coastal plains. The hills contain salt domes with numerous reliefs without too much soil or covered a thin salty layer. The coastal plains have deep soil of medium texture and high salt concentration.
Water transgression in the northern part of Bushehr peninsula has created a vast bay-like area which has accommodated some islands like Shif and Abasak. Tidal storms most often cover a major part of Shif Island. The ground elevation made of fine grain sand is 1 meter on average.