The Hormozgan Province with more than 1000 km coastline is the longest littoral province of Iran neighboring the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Its area is 68476 square kilometers. This province is enclosed by Kerman Province from the North and North-east, and by Fars Province from North and North-West. This province is connected to Sistan and Baluchestan Province from the East and the whole southern boundary of this province is along the warm waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. The Center of Hormozgan Province is Bandar Abbas. It has 8 coastal counties from which Jask with 337 km and Lengeh with 309 km Have the longest coastline, and Khamir with 24 km has the shortest among the coastal counties. Some of the important cities in Hormozgan Province are Minab, Jask, Lengeh, and Hadji Abad. Hormozgan Province possesses the major islands of Iran located in the Persian Gulf region, namely: Gheshm, Kish, Abu Musa, Tonbs and Farours.
Based on the latest figures, Hormozgan Province has 712140 inhabitants. From this population 160746 people live in a 10 km distance from the shore . This number consists around 20 percent of the rural population of the whole province. This figures demonstrate the importance of the sea on the lives of native people. Around 95000 people live in 5 km distance and 66000 people live between 5 to 10 km distance from the sea.
A large number of industries and infrastructures are located in Hormozgan Province. Shahid Rajaee Port, Bandar Abbas refinery, Bandar Abbas power plant, Ship building industry, and a number of dams can be mentioned as a few. Proximity to the strategic point of Hormuz strait which connects the Persian Gulf to the Oman Sea has increased the importance of Hormozgan Province to a large extent.
Bushehr Province is a relatively long and narrow land that is located in the south of Iran, neighboring the warm waters of the Persian Gulf. The length of the coastline of Bushehr Province is 934 km. The coastlines of Bushehr Province along the Persian Gulf starts from Shahabdolla in Deylam area down to the Nayband gulf which is an environmentally protected area. Some of the main cities of Bushehr Province are Genaveh, Kangan, Khormouj, Borazjan, Dayyer, Deylam, Ahram, Bandar Reeg, Assaluyeh, and Jam.
The Bushehr Province is enclosed by Khuzestan Province at the North, by Hormozgan Province from the South, and by Fars Province from the East and North-East. The West and South of this province is connected to Persian Gulf.
Bushehr Province possesses a number of important islands such as Kharg, Kharko, and Farsi. Kharg is one of the major oil exporting terminals of Iran.
Bushehr Province has 10 counties from which 8 counties has coastline. These counties are; Deylam, Assaluyeh, Genaveh, Bushehr, Tangestan, Dashti, Dayyer, and Kangan. In Bushehr Province, there are 8 areas under the management of Department of the Environment, 6 of which are coastal areas namely: the wildlife refuge of Kharg, national natural icon of Kharko, protected area of Helleh, protected area of Mand, national park of Nakhilo, and the national park of Nayband.
Bushehr Province is the center of catching fish and shrimp and the related industries such as small ship building and net knitting. Bushehr Province plays a pivotal role in Iran power sector, because of hosting Nuclear power plant, Assaluyeh petrochemical plants, Jam gas refinery complex, and a number of other important installations. Having some of the heavy industries, marine transportation, fisheries and aquaculture, and ecotourism have provided favorable conditions for economic growth that are considered opportunities for future development in the province.
Khuzestan covers 64000 square kilometers area which is 4 percent of the whole area of Iran. Khuzestan is bounded by Lorestan Province from the North, by Isfahan and Charmahal provinces from the East and North-East, by Ilam province from the North-west, by Kohkiluyeh and Bovir ahmad province from East and South-east. Khuzestan is connected to Iraq from the West and to Persian Gulf from the South. Khuzestan Province has a strategic position in Iran because it is the most oil-rich province of the country. Proximity of the Khuzestan Province to Iran’s neighboring Arab countries has increased its importance.
Khuzestan ranks fifth in the country from the population point of view. The latest census shows that Khuzestan Province has a population of 4,531,720 . This population contain 1083341 families among which 793289 families live in urban areas and 290052 families in rural areas.
Khuzestan, like other littoral provinces of Iran has a warm weather especially during the summer time. However, some northern parts of this province that are located at higher levels closer to mountains have milder weather.
Khuzestan province has more than 300 km coastline which is around 15 percent of Iran’s total length of the southern coastlines. Khuzestan coastlines are deltaic, wide, with low relieves. These areas, especially during the winter time, are good for tourism, water-sports, as well as fishing activities.
Sistan and Baluchestan Province:
This Province is located at the South-East of Iran. Sistan and Baluchestan Province has 181785 square kilometer area and is the largest province of Iran. This province has 1200 km coastline along the Oman Sea which provides an excellent access to the open seas.
A number of ports, jetties, and other coastal and marine installations exit in Sistan and Baluchestan Province e.g. Shahid Beheshti Port and Shahid Kalantari Port in Chabahar, and Beris, Ramin, Tees, Pozm, and Zarabad fishing ports in other areas, along with some water desalting plants. Chabahar has around 300 km coastal border with Iran’s neighboring countries of Oman and Pakistan which is a unique advantage of this strategic point.
Along the coastline and coastal areas of the province up to 150 km distance inland there exits a mild weather and 50 to 95 percent relative humidity which provides very suitable conditions for growing vegetables and tropical fruits during the fall and winter seasons. This special weather of the coastal zone of Sistan and Baluchestan and also the large variation of biotypes of flora and fauna are another advantages of this province.
Another advantage of Sistan and Baluchestan Province is its suitability for aquaculture. Proximity to open seas, vast undeveloped land, low wage manpower, domestic developed technology, diversity of the fish and shrimp types that can be caught and the high export value of the fish to nearby markets in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea have made this province a focal point for Iran’s fishing industries in the future. Creating a productive fishing industry can play an important role in increasing the employment rate and rural development of the province.
Guilan, located at the North of Iran, is one of the most attractive places of the country from the tourism point of view. It has the highest rate of rainfall in the whole country. This province has certain characteristics that attract millions of domestic and foreign tourists every year. Having beautiful sandy beaches on one hand, and dense forests on the other are among the natural attractions of Guilan Province. Near Talesh area, the forest becomes very close to the beach which increases the beauty of the area. Guilan coastlines have several advantages that make it suitable for ecotourism, swimming, water-sports, surfing, etc. A large part of Guilan is used for agricultural purposes especially for rice and tea.
The length of the coastline of Guilan Province is 220 km , along which some of the major cities of the province namely: Astara, Anzali, and Kiashahr are located. The most important port of Iran at the North is Bandar Anzali which is the gateway for import and export of goods to the Caspian Sea littoral states especially to Russia.
Golestan Province with the area of 20438 square kilometers is one of the northern provinces of Iran. This province is neighbor of Turkmenistan from the North, Mazandaran Province and Caspian Sea from the West, North Khorasan Province from the East, and Semnan Province from the South.
Golestan Province has 11 counties, 24 towns, and 21 districts. The natural and ecological conditions of Golestan is influenced by the Siberian weather from the North and Mediterranean weather from the East plus seasonal regional winds. The Miankale peninsula is an important environmentally protected area in Golestan Province that is the habitat of a large number of birds and other animals.
There is a large number of infrastructures in Golestan Province e.g. Neka power plant, Sadra heavy industries complex, ports, and some offshore oil extraction platforms
Mazandara n is one of the important provinces at the north of Iran close to the Caspian Sea. This province is bounded by the Caspian Sea at the North , Guilan Province at the West, Golestan Provine at the East, and provinces of Tehran, Semnan, Alborz, and Ghazvin at the South.
Based on the country’s latest official border delineation, Mazandaran has 19 counties, 52 cities, and 46 districts. Most of counties of Mazandaran Province are connected to the sea and its major cities are located on top of the alluvial sediments. Kiasar with the altitude of +1294m is the highest, and Babolsar with the altitude of -22m is the lowest town of Mazandaran Province.
Based on the latest census, Mazandaran Province has the population of 3,037,403 which is around 4.5 percent of the population of Iran. The population ratio per square kilometer in Mazandaran Province is 123 which is very high comparing to the average value for the whole country which is 2.46. In fact Mazandaran Province has the third rank in population density after Tehran and Guilan provinces. There are a number of reasons for this high population density, among which the nice and mild weather, fertile agricultural ground, abundant irrigation water, good infrastructures, and natural beauty and attractions of the Caspian Sea coastlines can be mentioned.