Friday Jul 30, 2021

ICZM experiences around the world

 ICZM is increasingly being developed and used by governments around the world as a distinct management approach to address coastal zone problems. In 1992, the Inter Coast Network newsletter identified 108 ICZM efforts in 44 coastal sovereign and semi-sovereign states (InterCoast, 1992). According to Sorensen (1993), there are currently approximately 150 CZM efforts throughout the world in over 60 sovereign or semi-sovereign states. In recent years there has been a particular increase in CZM effort in developing nations.  The word 'effort' includes ICZM feasibility studies, pilot projects, and programs (both on-going and defunct). 

Past Experiences Regarding ICZM

In Britain the proposals put forth by the European Union and the country's cabinet has given a new momentum to coastal management. The details are discussed in the marine stewardship report. The report declares that there is a need for a new vision for the coastal zone without which the stewardship of the seas and an approach based on ecosystems will never succeed. In this report, in order to encourage ICZM programs at a national level, special attention has been given to guidelines for planning a policy, study of the situation in coastal areas, and strategies for national coasts. 
Scotland has taken the lead in ICZM compared to other parts of Britain. The Organization for Coastal and Marine Participation has taken similar steps in Wales. Hence, it has the potential to become a center for directing ICZM activities in this part of the country. It is possible that in the near future a similar organization will be created in Ireland. But Ireland lags far behind the rest of the countries in this respect. According to a request by the European Union work has just started on studying the existing conditions on the coastal zone and drawing up national strategies. But it is still too early to make judgments concerning their degree of success. 
Malaysia is among countries which has started a pilot ICZM program with foreign help. The responsibility for the work lies with the states. The comprehensive plan that has been prepared is a combination of environmental and Physical programs which seeks to coordinate and integrate the activities of various local bodies in these two important respects. With regard to method of preparation, it is important to note that planning was done on the basis of task forces which were to secure the cooperation of different organizations and agencies during the planning process. 
Australia has one of the world’s longest coastlines. Since the 1990s Australia has undertaken many federal and state programs in the area of ICZM. The report produced by the Commission for the Assessment of Natural Resources which was published in 1990 laid the groundwork for many of the programs in this area. With support from the federal government and by passing the necessary legislation, state governments have tried to pave the way for the implementation of ICZM programs. Much research has been conducted in this area which has paved the way for drawing up national guidelines and policies. States’ ICZM programs fall within this context. 
Although Kenya is an African country, it has been a leader in the field of ICZM. Yet, it is going to take a long time for ICZM programs to be institutionalized in that country. Despite the fact that recent programs have increased awareness of ICZM, the ideas behind integrated coastal management are yet to have a deep impact on coastal management. However, the seeds for a long-term national strategy for coastal areas have been sewn. 
Denmark has a relatively long history in ICZM. Many of the laws and regulations passed in the past, have been used by the relevant government agencies as instruments for policymaking and management in the area of ICZM. In Denmark ICZM has taken the shape of a number of new projects which were implemented in coastal provinces. These are in fact the continuation of old coastal management policies which have been viewed from a different perspective. At the same time, more coordination has been created between different parts of the country and between Denmark and the European Union. Although environmental agencies bear the main responsibility for integrated coastal management, a spatial planning approach dominates the organization of coastal activities. 
Estonia is a Baltic state. The Sustainable Development Law acts as the foundation on which most environmental policies including those pertaining to coastal management have been built. In Estonia, as in Denmark, the approach to integrated coastal management is based on spatial planning. Local governments which draw up ICZM programs have considerable influence on the management of coastal areas. Whilst there is not a national level for the ICZM program, much work has been done or is being done in this field, both at the national and local levels. 
Finland faces a number of problems in its coastal areas including lack of oxygen in the sea – water and pollution caused by sea transport. Existing frameworks continue to dominate coastal management and no perceptible change in the area of ICZM can be seen. 

    Other Experiences:

ICZM has many economic, social and environmental benefits. However, because they are mostly intangible it has proven difficult to convince politicians and decision makers of the value of these benefits. Although in recent years methods and techniques have been developed for assessing the value of plans and programs relating to the environment, their full understanding requires time. Even so, some countries have quantified these benefits and used the resulting quantities for planning and policy making for the coast. programs. 

In addition to countries where there are internal ICZM programs mentioned above, there exist, instances where countries sharing the shores of a lake or a sea have combined their efforts in the area of coastal management. The Caspian Sea coastal states of Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Russia still use the traditional environmental approach to coastal management. They usually have a collection of laws which in some way relate to the coast zone and resources. Although none of these coastal countries have a comprehensive and integrated program for their coastal areas, several efforts in the field of ICZM have been undertaken. These efforts largely stem from their international undertakings. Almost all of them are confronted by serious problems in planning for and management of their coastal zones. These problems are rooted in their economic, social, political, legal, and cultural systems. There is also a clear lack of a specific framework and guidelines for coastal management. Yet another problem is the absence of institutes capable of managing an integrating coastal zone program. Further, insufficient efforts have been devoted to studying various methods used in ICZM programs. On top of that, limited knowledge is available on the subject. This situation is aggravated by inadequate funds allocated for existing programs. Yet another problem is that not all existing laws are enforced. Weak coordinations between agencies involved in coastal management and the lack of opportunities for the public to participate in decision making and implementation also bedevil ICZM programs. 

1. Belgium

Policy development. Belgium is a federal kingdom with three regions, only one of which,Vlaanderen (Flanders) is coastal. Vlaanderen is in charge of spatial and environmental planning, but the North Sea is under the full jurisdiction of the federal government.Vlaanderen has two coastal provinces: West-Vlaanderen (sea coast) and Antwerpen (Schelderiver mouth, estuarine coast).For a long time the sea coast has been the domain for sectoral planning mainly serving tourism and recreation. Due to the small length of the sea coast (65 km) and heavy population pressures, most of the sea coast became urbanised and half of the coastal dunes disappeared. However, Vlaanderen adopted a Duinendecreet (Dunes Act, protecting the remaining dunes) as well as an 

 Ecosysteemvisie (ecosystem management strategy), in 1995 for the dunes.The estuarine coast (Antwerpen) is under the influence of extensive harbour and industrial development.An ICZM policy does not yet exist, but an interdepartmental steering group for ICM has been active since 1996, bringing together federal, regional, provincial administrations and NGOs. Anew plan for the coast (Kust 2002 Plan) is under preparation to fully integrate conservation objectives with economic developments. Projects are also ongoing to improve the conservation and management of coastal dunes.


Administrative units

used for the regional assessment: Provinces (Provincies).

ICZM in progress. In West-Vlaanderen ICZM is in progress in the frame of the Terra-project "Integrated management of the Flemish coast". The project started in early 1999.


2. Denmark

Policy development.

Denmark has an elaborate spatial planning, especially in the coastal zone, with a high level of horizontal (cross-sectoral) integration and participation. The Danish Planning Act stipulates communication between the state, the counties and the municipalities. Public hearings and requests for comments and amendments are also statutory obligations in legislation and planning. Regional plans (to be renewed every 4 years) usually provide guidelines for the rational use of coastal areas including planning of recreational activities. The regional planning is followed up by action plans for nature, water quality, land use, tourism development, etc. A national ICZM policy does not exist. The special protection of the coastal zone has recently been extended from 100 up to 300 m, while there is also a planning zone of 3 km (both cases are land zones).  This planning zone development is only permitted when it is functionally linked to the coast, while there is a complete ban on new summer houses. All natural coastal habitats are protected, incl. the Wadden Sea and the dunes. The planning system is less integrated in the marine waters.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Counties (Amt).

ICZM in progress. All coastal counties are more or less actively involved in coastal zone management and planning. Consequently, all coastal regions are considered to witness a constant progress in ICZM. Further study would be useful to assess whether particular regions meet all ICZM criteria as used in this study.

Two specific ICZM-projects are running, a Terra-project on Storstrøm and a Life-project in the Wadden Sea area ("Integrated co-operation on the development of sustainable tourism and recreation in the Wadden Sea area").

3. Finland

Policy development. Land use planning does not have a long tradition in Finland; this is probably a result of low population and land use pressures and the long coastline *).

Nevertheless, pressures on the coastal zone have considerably increased over the last decades, mainly as a result of holiday homes. As a response, legal frameworks for spatial planning have recently been strengthened. In a coastal strip of 100-200 m (land zone) there is now an obligation for the preparation of spatial planning, through which restrictions can be put to building and mining. In addition, all natural ecosystems in the coastal zone are protected by law.

There is no national ICZM policy in Finland. However, many local authorities co-operate actively in coastal matters or in coastal projects.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Regions.

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

Kymenlaakso, Itä-Uusimaa, and Uusimaa. These regions participate in the Life-project "Coastal Planning on the Gulf of Finland". This project encourages participation of the inhabitants in planning, and the integration of environmental impact assessment into the planning process.

4. France

Policy development. France has a tradition of central planning, with an important government service (Conservatoire du Littoral) that purchases natural coastal areas and a national Coastal Law (1986) that stipulates a narrow protected zone along the undeveloped coastlines. A national ICZM policy does not yet exist in France, but a very interesting prototype already exists since 1983 through the Schémas de Mise en Valeur de la Mer, SMVM (‘Sea Valorisation Schemes’, eleborated in a decree in 1986). SMVM is a management tool for primarily marine use conflicts, zoning the adjacent marine environment and introducing a system of plans for enhancing and exploiting the sea. Unfortunately, until now only one SMVM (Etang de Thau) is officially running; the other initiatives did not give any concrete outcomes, because of the complexity of the instrument, lack of funding and conflicting interests between stakeholders. Since 1997 quick progress has been made, especially due to the EU Demonstration Programme.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Regions (Régions).

ICZM partially established. Two regions where ICZM can be assessed as partially established are:

· Basse-Normandie (Integrated Management Model for the Cotentin Wetlands)

· Bretagne (Integrated Management of the Bay of Brest and its watershed basin)

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

· Nord-Pas-de-Calais (Life-project)

· Poitou-Charentes (Life-project)

· Provence-Alpes-Cote-d’Azur (RAMOGE-project)

· Aquitaine (Terra-project)

5. Germany

Policy development. The organisational structure for decision making and planning in Germany involves three different political levels of decision making: community, state and federal government. The States (Länder) are the first responsible bodies for spatial planning and for coastal and water management. There are five coastal states, two of which are citystates.

A national ICZM policy does not exist. Planning in the German coastal zone has a predominantly sectoral character, with little integration of land and sea. All natural ecosystems in the coastal zone are protected. National Parks (five in the coast) play an important role in the German coastal zone. Three National Parks cover almost the entire German Wadden Sea, while there are two others in the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern coast. More than 90 % of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern coast has some protective designation varying from National Park and Nature reserve to Landscape reserve.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: States (Länder).

ICZM in progress. This applies to the North Sea coastlines of Schleswig-Holstein and Niedersachsen that are involved in the Life-project "Integrated co-operation on the development of sustainable tourism and recreation in the Wadden sea area".

6. Greece

Policy development. Efforts are being made to improve co-ordination between ministries to further develop environmental policies. Furthermore, integration of environmental considerations into other policy areas has gradually been strengthened. Up to now, management of the coastal zone is mainly implemented through physical planning and environmental policies and plans. Important aspects are the efforts on reducing the effects of water pollution which  a national ICZM policy does not exist.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Regions.

Partially established ICZM. The only example of this in Greece can be found in the region of South Aegean, on the island of Rhodes which an integrated management programme started in 1992 under the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP). In this same region, a Life-project is running in the Cyclades preparing the development of ICZM in nine local communities and three municipalities of the archipelago.

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

· Epirus (Integrated Management of the Coast of Ipiros, part of an EU Terra-project)

· Attika (different projects implemented under the Terra Programme Posidonia)

· Thessalia (Life-projects on requirements for sustainable developments of Magnesia’s coastal zone)

· Central Macedonia (Life-project Actions for management of the Strymonikos coastal zone)

· East Macedonia (Terra-project Integrated Management of the Coast of Kavala)

7. Ireland

Policy development. The Irish legislative framework is strongly sectoral, complex and intricate. Legislative measures serve one of two principal purposes - the administration of activities or the protection of the environment. Spatial planning is rather decentralised. As a result, the coastal zone is administered by a range of authorities, agencies and bodies. ICZM is quite a new phenomenon in Ireland. The government started to develop policies regarding this subject which resulted in an ICZM working paper in 1997. Efforts towards new ICZM policies devote much attention to resource development, conservation and to environmental protection. According to the existing Irish government and future issues in the coastal zone, it can best be addressed by streamlining and enhancing the arrangements for consultation and co-operation, in planning and operation, between and within the various departments, authorities and agencies responsible for the management of the coastal zone.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Counties.

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

· Cork (Development of a consensus based ICZM strategy for Bantry Bay)

· Donegal (Implementing alternative strategies  and dune management in the Irish beach : Involvement in sustainable coastal development.)

8. Italy

Policy development. In the past decades, the major barrier to the co-ordination and integrated management in Italy, was the pulverisation of responsibility in a number of governmental authorities from municipalities, city quarters and cities to provinces, regions and states, each defining their own strategy influenced by a variety of political currents and the interests in power rather than in public services. In recent years this severe problem, has been recognized as the cause of lack of action and new solutions, for co-ordination and integration under consideration because a national ICZM policy does not exist. Even though IZCM is in progress via specific programmes, vertical integration and public participation are not yet strongly developed.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Regions.

ICZM partially established. At the moment this is the case in Veneto, for Venice Lagoon.

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

· Liguria (cooperates in several projects such as the MAP project: The Ligurian Region and Assessment of Integrated Coastal Area Management Initiatives in the Mediterranean)

· Campania (Terra/Posidonia Project)

· Puglia (Terra/Posidonia Project)

· Sicily (Terra/Posidonia Project)

· Abruzzo (Life-project RICAMA – “Rational for Integrated Coastal Area Management”).

RICAMA represents the core of the strategy to reach Abruzzo’s integrated coastal area management. Its objective is to determine and improve methodological managing aspects in order to give an integrated approach to problems such as economical, social and environmental aspects connected to the use of sea-coastal resources, involvement of all different sectors in development policies, programmes and management practices, as well as creating a synergy among the various planing instruments; etc.

9. The Netherlands

Policy development. There is a long tradition of integrated planning in the Netherlands as a result of the population density and high economic development pressures. Planning frameworks for all sectors are made at a national level and they are usually tuned to each other because their development is a long process involving many stakeholders, ministries and the Parliament. Cicin-Sain and Knight (1998) consider the Netherlands the world leader in ICM for coastal defence and in harmonisation of national coastal and ocean policies Coastal ecosystems (Wadden Sea, all marine foreshore zones, sand dunes and salt marshes) are all given a high protection status as key elements of the Ecologische Hoofdstructuur (EHS, a national ecological network). This EHS is used as the main guideline for coastal planning and management in which there is increasing attention for the integration of land and marine areas. Already for fifteen years, the Dutch Wadden Sea (part of three provinces) has a special status as a separate planning area with a special Council (Waddenadviesraad) for horizontal and vertical integration. Major planning decisions are regulated through a national planning instrument (Planologische Kernbeslissing, PKB Waddenzee). The planning and management of the Dutch Wadden Sea has developed as an international model of ICZM. In 1999 an interdepartmental working group for ICM produced a discussion paper Kust op Koers that was actually broadly discussed in regional and national fora.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Provinces (Provincies).

ICZM established. Wadden Sea region: provinces of Groningen, Friesland

ICZM partially established: Noord-Holland (for the Wadden Sea region, for the mainland coast there is a joint project with Zuid-Holland)

ICZM in progress: Zuid-Holland (joint ICZM project with Noord-Holland) and Zeeland (Beleidsplan Voordelta).

10. Norway

Policy development. Norway has a decentralised spatial planning, with a narrow coastal protection strip. There is a strong focus on the development of fisheries, mariculture and (locally) offshore, but a national ICZM policy does not exist. The Norwegian approach has been to enable local communities and counties to extend their planning into marine waters through the planning and building act of 1985. The need for integrated planning in Norway has mainly come up because of problems in fish farming, pollution, second homes building and user conflicts. Important target in CZM is the establishing of co-operation between different sector interests and plans on the county level. First steps in this direction are already taken in the Hordaland county.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Counties.

ICZM in progress. It was difficult to obtain actual information on progress at the regional level. However, a first assessment indicates that ICZM is in progress in the following regions:

· Nord Trondelag ("Local management plans on the Norwegian coasts", EU Demonstration Programme)

· Hordaland (Norcoast)

· Rogaland (Seagis)

· Vest-Agder

· Aus-Agder.

11. Portugal

Policy development. The whole coastal zone of Portugal is subject to the Plano de Ordenamento da Orla Costeira - POOCs (coastal zone territorial / spatial plans). Most of them are still only in a preparatory phase. Despite the fact that they do not cover all ICZM elements, these plans can be good instruments for horizontal and vertical integration. The plans are in an advanced stage in the regions of Algarve, Madeira and Porto. Public participation is not yet strongly developed.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Regions.

ICZM in progress. Besides Lisboa & Vale do Tejo and Alentejo, the whole coast of Portugal has ICZM in progress. These regions are:

· North Portugal (Terra-project Concertcost, Vale do Lima, POOC)

· Central Portugal (Life-project Maria)

· Algarve (Terra-project, POOC)

· Açores (Life-Nature-project: Integrated Management of Coastal & Marine zones in the Açores)

· Madeira (POOC).

12. Spain

Policy development. Between 1960 and 1990 the coast has been the domain for strongly sectoral planning mainly serving international tourism. A national ICZM policy does not exist in Spain. However, because the Autonomous Regions are responsible for spatial and environmental planning, most coastal Regions have developed cross-sectoral land planning for coastal areas over the last 5-10 years. With respect to management of the coastal zone, there exists an overlap of jurisdiction among national, regional and local authorities. Although the bulk of resource management jurisdiction is vested in the regional government, the national government has claimed exclusive competence over the coastal strip determined as Coastal Public Domain through the Shores Act (Ley de Costas 1988). Local governments participate in coastal zone managements through the development of land use plans on the beach and in the  foreshore areas. Vertical integration and public participation are not yet strongly developed.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Autonomous Regions (Autonomías CC.AA). Provinces have no competence in this matter.

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

· Andalucía (Agenda 21 Littoral de la Janda, Integrated Management of the Algarve-Huelva Coast)

· Comunidad Valenciana (TERRA Concertcost Valencia)

· Cataluña (Terra project Posidonia)

· Baleares (Agenda 21 Calviá, Mallorca)

· País Vasco (Plan for Coastal Areas, Urdaibai Biosphere Reserve)

Good examples at a local level are the development of Local Agenda 21 Litoral de la Janda (Andalucia) and Calviá (Mallorca). These are the only two coastal projects cases in Spain of Local Agenda 21. These are also the only two cases where real public participation in coastal management and planning is taking place.

13. Sweden

Policy development. Spatial planning in Sweden is organised in a decentralised way; most of the planning responsibilities are transferred to regional and local levels of the government. The Planning and Building Act stipulates that all municipalities must have a structure plan covering their entire area (both land and marine areas), their use and how the planned activities will influence changes and conservation of valuable parts of the municipality. There is a protected strip of 100 m seawards and landwards, that can be extended to 200 or 300 m in areas of national importance (this is the case for 70% of the Swedish coast). The Nature Conservation Act stipulates that the aims of shore protection also include the protection of flora and fauna as well as outdoor recreation interests. In the coast there is much attention for the development of fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, Sweden has over 10 years of experience with ICZM, and it has developed a national vision on the subject.

Sweden is running Europe's largest research programme on CZM or marine resources:

Research Programme on Sustainable Coastal Zone Management of Marine Resources(SUCOZOMA). This programme aims to develop the concepts, evaluation instruments and procedures needed in order to resolve, on a basis of science and public participation, all conflicts concerning the use and conservation of the natural resources of the Swedish coastal zone. The programme also aims to create local jobs in coastal communities, in activities that are ecologically and economically sustainable.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Regions.

ICZM in progress. It has been proved difficult to obtain actual information on the local situation from the Swedish government as well as from the regions. However, a first assessment confirms ICZM progress in the following regions:

· Vestra Götaland (Lysekil, Norcoast, Archipelago project)

· Blekinge Län (Blekinge Archipelago project)

· Södermanlands Län (Archipelago project)

Government sources referred to a larger number of ICZM projects but did not provide a list. Probably this refers to Kalmar, Östergötland and Stockholm which also participate in the Archipelago Project. This project started in 1998 to give coastal counties (or regional administrations) responsibility for creating regional, environmental and resource management programmes for their coastal areas and archipelagos. The programmes to be developed should include detailed action plans to achieve ecologically sustainable development. More information will be available in the next Archipelago progress report (due for December 1999).

14. United Kingdom

Policy development. Sectoral national policies and regional strategies form the framework for coastal management in the UK. In England and Wales coastal management is strongly determined by instruments such as National Parks, Heritage Coasts and properties of national NGO's (e.g. National Trust, RSPB, local trusts). Management initiatives are locally based, non-statutory, cross-sectoral plans, implemented through voluntary partnerships. Local management initiatives often feature strong public consultation. Examples of this are the various Estuary Management Plans. Primarily they are based upon sea defence interests, also many Shoreline Management Plans are currently developing (in principle for all "coastal cells"). Over the last years parliamentary activities and strong spurring from the NGO community has resulted into UK government's attention for ICZM and a national ICZM paper was due to be published in 1999. Various sources conclude that effective ICZM will be hampered by the complicated and strongly sectoral legal framework. As a result of extensive EC-funding for UK-projects in the context of the EU Demonstration Programme for ICZM and the Estuary Management Plans, the UK is quickly developing local experience.

Administrative units used for the regional assessment: Counties.

ICZM established. Dorset is the only region where ICZM has been assessed as fully established. The voluntary initiative "The Dorset Coast Strategy" aims to achieve integrated management of the whole Dorset's coast and inshore waters. The initiative is promoted by the Dorset Coast Forum, which was established in 1995. The Dorset Coast Strategy principles and action plan include the key elements of horizontal and vertical integration, and public participation.

ICZM in progress. This applies to the following regions:

· Kent (Terra-project Integrated management of the Kent Coast)

· Cumbria, Lancashire and Cheshire (NW-England).

· Devon and Cornwall (Terra-project Integrated management of a Living Atlantic coastline)

· East Sussex (Strategy for the East Sussex)

· Isle of Wight (South Wight Coastal Zone Management Plan, Integrated Management of Coastal Zones: Isle of Wight)

· Down and Derry (Northern Ireland, Integrated management of the Coast of Down; Implementing alternative strategies on the Irish beach and dune management)

· Lothian (Forth Estuary Forum: A demonstration of effective integrated coastal zone management.)

· Tayside and Highland (local projects)

The existence of an Estuary Management Plan is not automatically assessed as "progress". In these plans vertical integration seems to be a weak point. The next phase should include a more detailed study of the EM plans.